Clonidine duration of action

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  1. PilotGarry XenForo Moderator

    Clonidine duration of action


    In order to use Medscape, your browser must be set to accept cookies delivered by the Medscape site. Medscape uses cookies to customize the site based on the information we collect at registration. The cookies contain no personally identifiable information and have no effect once you leave the Medscape site. Usual dose range is 0.2 to 0.6 mg daily in divided doses. If transdermal patch is used, apply to area of hairless intact skin once q 7 days. Half-life of clonidine ranges from 6 to 20 hours in patients with normal renal function. b.i.d.; then increased by 0.1 per day at weekly intervals until desired response is achieved. Excretion: About 65% of a given dose is excreted in urine; 20% is excreted in feces. Initially, clonidine may stimulate peripheral alpha-adrenergic receptors, producing transient vasoconstriction. Antihypertensive action: Clonidine decreases peripheral vascular resistance by stimulating central alpha-adrenergic receptors, thus decreasing cerebral sympathetic outflow; drug also may inhibit renin release. Or, apply transdermal patch (0.2 mg/24 hours) and replace weekly for the first 2 or 3 weeks after smoking cessation. After oral administration, the antihypertensive effect lasts up to 8 hours; after transdermal application, the antihypertensive effect persists for up to 7 days. Contraindicated in patients hypersensitive to drug. Transdermal form is contraindicated in patients hypersensitive to any component of the adhesive layer.

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    Epidural clonidine mechanism of action Definition Clonidine functions as a sympatholytic by stimulating presynaptic α2-receptors leading to decreased release of norepinephrine at both central and peripheral adrenergic terminals. This dose provided similar pain relief and increased the analgesia duration as. The sympatholytic action of clonidine may worsen sinus node dysfunction and. Clonidine is used to treat hypertension high blood pressure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD. Learn about side effects, interactions and indications.

    PO administration: 0.1-0.3 mg q4-6hr; increase by 0.1 mg/day to 0.15-0.75 mg/day if required; do not exceed 2.4 mg/day TD administration: 100-200 mcg/day patch q7Days; initiate 0.1-0.3 mg PO q4-6hr for first 2 days to allow for adequate drug levels Not recommended as routine treatment for hypertension (Beers criteria) Potential for orthostatic hypotension and adverse CNS effects May cause bradycardia Immediate release: Lower initial doses than for nongeriatric adult dosing, as well as gradual adjustments, are recommended Extended release: May require lower initial dose than for nongeriatric adult dosing Skin reactions; patch (15-50%) Dry mouth (40%) Somnolence (19-38%) Headache (19-29%) Fatigue (13-24%) Drowsiness (33%) Dizziness (13-16%) Hypotension, epidural (45%) Postural hypotension, epidural (32%) Anxiety (11%) Epidural clonidine is not recommended for obstetric postpartum or perioperative pain management because the risk of hemodynamic instability (eg, hypotension, bradycardia) may be unacceptable in this population Dilute product with strength of 500 mcg/m L prior to use Epidural: Hemodynamically unstable patients (risk of severe hypotension) Do not discontinue suddenly (risk of rebound hypertension) Patch: May need to remove if severe erythema and/or localized vesicle formation develop at application site or generalized rash; consult physician Severe coronary insufficiency May cause xerostomia Recent MI Cerebrovascular disease Chronic renal failure Raynaud's disease Thromboangiitis obliterans History of depression (may exacerbate depression in cancer patients) May impair ability to perform hazardous tasks Remove patch before MRI (may cause burns) Hypotension may occur; usually responsive to IV fluids and, if necessary, appropriate parenterally administered pressor agents Cardiac conduction abnormalities: Sympatholytic action may worsen sinus node dysfunction and atrioventricular (AV) block, especially if coadministered with other sympatholytic drugs Titrate slowly and monitor vital signs frequently in patients at risk for hypotension, heart block, bradycardia, syncope, cardiovascular disease, vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease or chronic renal failure; measure heart rate and blood pressure prior to initiation of therapy, following dose increases, and periodically while on therapy; avoid concomitant use of drugs with additive effects unless clinically indicated; advise patients to avoid becoming dehydrated or overheated Epidural administration may result in mild respiratory depression (usually with higher than recommended dose) Use with caution in cerebrovascular disease Avoid as first line antihypertensive in the elderly due to high risk for adverse side effects Children may be particularly susceptible to hypertensive episodes when experiencing GI illnesses that lead to vomiting Discontinue oral immediate release formulations within 4 hr of surgery; restart as soon as possible following surgery Due to different pharmacokinetic profiles, oral formulations are not interchangeable with extended release on a mg-mg basis due to different pharmacokinetic profiles Central sympatholytic via stimulation of central alpha receptors; results in reduced sympathetic outflow, causing decreased PVR, HR, BP, and renal vascular resistance; produces presynaptic and postjunctional alpha-2 adrenoreceptor analgesia by preventing pain signal transmission to brain Postsynaptic alpha2-agonist stimulation may regulate subcortical activity in the prefrontal cortex, which may regulate the area of the brain responsible for attention, emotions, and behaviors, and thereby reduces hyperactivity, distractibility, and impulsiveness The above information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only. Individual plans may vary and formulary information changes. Contact the applicable plan provider for the most current information. Youn is a pharmacy practice resident at Fountain Valley Regional Hospital and Medical Center in Fountain Valley, California. Pham is assistant professor of pharmacy practice at Western University College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, in Pomona, California. Hence, hypertensive emergency requires a rapid reduction in BP in hours using intravenous (IV) medications to prevent further organ damage. In contrast, hypertensive urgency does not have any physical findings of target-organ damage and is preferably managed with oral agents within 24 to 48 hours. To prevent further patient morbidity, it is important to initiate appropriate patient-directed therapy upon the recognition of hypertensive crisis. Patients presenting with hypertensive urgency do not mandate admission to a hospital. The treatment for hypertensive urgency requires a gradual lowering of BP. In fact, a rapid reduction may be associated with significant morbidity due to a marked reduction in perfusion that can result in ischemia or infarction.

    Clonidine duration of action

    Catapres Clonidine Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage., Catapres clonidine hydrochloride dose, indications, adverse effects.

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  3. Epidural clonidine is not recommended for obstetric postpartum or perioperative pain. Sympatholytic action may worsen sinus node. Duration 6 -10 hr. Peak.

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    Clonidine is a centrally acting a-adrenergic agonist with onset of action 30-60 minutes following oral administration and maximal effects seen within 2-4 hours. Clonidine may be used for differential diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in. Its actions in the nervous system decreases blood pressure in patients with. Clonidine is an imidazoline compound with the molecular formula C9H9Cl2N3. The onset of action after an intravenous dose is within 10 minutes and lasts.

     
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